head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2021, vol. 27, issue4
Subject Area: Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2021274.4014
Published online: 06 October 2021

Original article

J of IMAB. 2021 Oct-Dec;27(4):4014-4019
Mariela KamburovaORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail,
Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University - Pleven, Bulgaria.

Roma communities suffer from higher rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and related impairments and limitations in daily activities.
Purpose of the article is to study and analyze health risk factors: body mass index, blood pressure and blood glucose among the Roma population in small cities in Bulgaria.
Material/Methods: In May 2015, a community-based approach was applied, and all adult residents of the Roma neighborhood of the town of Knezha, district of Pleven, were invited to participate. Only the persons who agreed to participate (59) or about 9% of the adult residents of Roma origin are included.
By measuring BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose, the collection of primary data was done.
The statistical processing of the data with Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and STATGRAPHICS-19 centurion software packages was performed. The significance of the results and conclusions was determined at p<0.05.
Results: The Roma population is characterized by an unfavorable risk constellation and a health profile. Over two thirds (77.1%) of the participants in the study have BMI values above the normal. There is a high relative share of people with hypertension – 42.3% of Roma people covered. Elevated levels of blood sugar were found in almost 40% of the people observed: in equal relative shares are presented the persons with impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetic) and diabetes mellitus – respectively 18.7%.
Conclusions: The study found a wide distribution of unhealthy factors of lifestyle among Roma population, and particularly alarming results are established regarding to the health of the Roma women.

Keywords: Roma health, risk factors, community-based approach,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 630 KB/
Please cite this article as: Kamburova M. Health risk factors: body mass index, blood pressure and blood glucose among Roma in Bulgaria. J of IMAB. 2021 Oct-Dec;27(4):4014-4019.
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2021274.4014

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Mariela Kamburova, Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University – Pleven; 1, Kl. Ohridski, str., Pleven 5800, Bulgaria; E-mail: mariela_kamburova@yahoo.com

1. Final results of the census - 2001. [in Bulgarian] NSI. 2001. [Internet]
2. [Census of the population and housing stock in the Republic of Bulgaria.] [in Bulgarian] NSI. 2011. [Internet]
3. Földes ME, Covaci A. Research on Roma health and access to healthcare: state of the art and future challenges. Int J Public Health. 2012 Feb;57(1):37-9. [PubMed]
4.Masseria C, Mladovsky P, Hernández-Quevedo C. The socio-economic determinants of the health status of Roma in comparison with non-Roma in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. Eur J Public Health. 2010 Oct;20(5):549-54. [PubMed]
5.Roma education in comparative perspective. Roma Inclusion Working Papers, UNDP Europe and the CIS, Bratislava Regional Centre. UNDP. 2012. [Internet]
6.Dobranici M, Buzea A, Popescu R. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature. J Med Life. 2012 Dec 15;5(4):382-9. [PubMed]
7.Monasta L, Erenbourg A, Restaino S, Lutje V, Ronfani L. Review of the Scientific Literature on the Health of the Roma and the Sinti. Ethn Dis. 2012 Summer;22(3):367-71. [PubMed]
8.Kosa Z, Moravcsik-Kornyicki A, Dioszegi J, Roberts B, Szabo Z, Sandor J, et al. prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Apr;25(2):299-304. [PubMed]
9.Hidvegi T, Hetyesi K, Biro L, Nadas J, Jermendy G. Screening for metabolic syndrome within a minority ethnic group (adult Gypsy people) in Hungary. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012;113(12):721-4. [PubMed]
10.Vozarova de Courten B, de Courten M, Hanson RL, Zahorakova A, Egyenes HP, Tataranni PA, et al. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Nov;62(2):95-103. [PubMed]
11.Beljić Zivković T, Marjanović M, Prgomelja S, Soldatovic I, Koprivica B, Acković D, et al. Screening for diabetes among Roma people living in Serbia. Croat Med J. 2010 Apr;51(2):144-50. [PubMed]
12.Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Blazicek P, Spustova V, Valachovicova M, Ginter E. Cardiovascular risk factors in young Gypsy population. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2004; 105(7-8):256-9. [PubMed]
13.Health and the Roma Community, analysis of the situation in Europe. Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain. Fundación Secretariado Gitano. Madrid. 2009. [Internet]
14.ESHESC Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003 Jun;21(6):1011-53. [PubMed]
15.Tsvetkova T, Danev S. editors. [Analytical principles and procedures in the clinical laboratory.] [in Bulgarian] Plovdiv. Med. Publishing House Vasil Petrov - VAP. 2001.
16.Orton L, de Cuevas RA, Stojanovski K, Gamella JF, Greenfields M, La Parra D et al. Roma populations and health inequalities: a new perspective. Int J Hum Rights Healthc, 2019 Nov 28;12(5):319-327. [PubMed]
17.Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, Ezzati M, Woodward M, Rimm EB, Danaei G. The Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Disease. Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1.8 million participants. Lancet. 2014 Mar 15;383(9921):970-83. [PubMed]
18. Health status of citizens in 2009. Annual report. Ministry of Health. Sofia. 2010. [Internet]
19. Borisova A-MI, Shinkov AD, Vlahov JD, Dakovska LN, Todorov TC. [Study on the prevalence of obesity among the Bulgarian population in 2012.] [in Bulgarian] Endocrinology. 2015; 20(2):82-8. [Internet]
20. Borissova A-MI, Shinkov AD, Vlahov JD, Dakovska LN, Todorov TC. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in Bulgarian population (actual data).] [in Bulgarian] Endocrinology. 2015; 20(2):76-81. [Internet]
21. Uchikova EH, Orbetzova ММ. [Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity and Risk of Endometrial Carcinoma.] [in Bulgarian] Endocrinology. 2015; 20(2):69-75. [Internet]
22. Kaidar-Person O, Bar-Sela G, Person B. The two major epidemics of the twenty-first century: obesity and cancer. Obes Surg. 2011 Nov;21(11):1792-7. [PubMed]
23. Borissova A-MI, Shinkov AD, Vlahov JD, Dakovska LN, Todorov TC. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in Bulgaria today.] [in Bulgarian] Endocrinology. 2012; 17(4):182-192. [Internet].

Received: 23 April 2021
Published online: 06 October 2021

back to Online Journal