head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2021, vol. 27, issue2
Subject Area: Dental Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2021272.3759
Published online: 02 June 2021

Review article

J of IMAB. 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):3759-3764
Bistra BlagovaORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Nikolay YanevORCID logo,
Maxillofacial Surgery Division, University Multiprofile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine N. I. Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Cat scratch disease has been reported in the literature for more than half a century as a syndrome of regional lymphadenopathy and fever. However, only a quarter of a century has passed since Bartonella henselae was identified as an etiological agent. As diagnostic techniques have improved, Bartonella has been found to be responsible for a wide range of clinical syndromes. This review summarizes current knowledge about microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques and treatment of Bartonella henselae infection.

Keywords: Bartonella henselae, bartonellosis, cat scratch disease (CSD), cat scratch fever, felinosis,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 517 KB/
Please cite this article as: Blagova B, Yanev N. Human Bartonella infection: a review of literature. J of IMAB. 2021 Apr-Jun;27(1):3759-3764. DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2021272.3759

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Bistra Blagova, DDS, DMD, Maxillofacial Surgery Division, University Multiprofile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine N. I. Pirogov, Sofia; 21, Gen. Totleben Blvd., 1606, Sofia, Bulgaria; E-mail: dr_blagova@abv.bg

1. Spickler AR. Cat Scratch Disease and Other Zoonotic Bartonella Infections. 2012. 12 p. [Internet]
2. Windsor JJ. Cat-scratch Disease: Epidemiology, Etiology, and Treatment. Br J Biomed Sci. 2001; 58:101-10. [PubMed ]
3. Florin TA, Zaoutis TE, Zaoutis LB. Beyond Cat Scratch Disease: widering spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection Pediatrics. 2008 May;121(5):1413-25. [PubMed ]
4. Margileth AM. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of cat scratch disease. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2000 Apr;2(2):141-6. [PubMed ]
5. Karski J, Matuszewski L, Okonski M, Pietrzyk D, Karska K, Zaluski M. Cat Scratch Disease in a 1.5-year-old girl – case report. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018; 25(2):345-8. [Crossref ]
6. Bass JW, Vincent JM, Person DA. The expanding spectrum of Bartonella infections: II. cat-scratch disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 Feb;16(2):163-79. [PubMed ]
7. Debre R, Lamy M, Jammet ML, Costil L, Mozziconacci P. [Cat scratch disease.] [in French] Bull Mem Soc Med Hop Paris. 1950; 66:76-9.
8. Wear DJ, Margileth AM, Hadfield TL, Fischer GW, Schlagel CJ, King FM. Cat-scratch disease: a bacterial infection. Science. 1983;221(4618):1403-5.
9. English CK, Wear DJ, Margileth AM, Lissner CR, Walsh GP. Cat-scratch disease: isolation and culture of the bacterial agent. JAMA. 1988 Mar 4;259(9):1347-52. [PubMed]
10. Brenner DJ, Hollis DG, Moss CW, English CK, Hall GS, Vincent J, et al. Proposal of Afipia gen. nov., with Afipia felis sp. nov. (formerly the cat scratch disease bacillus), Afipia clevelandensis sp. nov. (formerly the Cleveland Clinic Foundation strain), Afipia broomeae sp. nov., and three unnamed genospecies. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Nov;29(11):2450-60. [PubMed]
11. Regnery RL, Olson JG, Perkins BA, Bibb W. Serological response to "Rochalimaea henselae" antigen in suspected catscratchdisease. Lancet. 1992 Jun 13;339(8807):1443-5. [PubMed]
12. Dolan MJ, Wong MT, Regnery RL, Jorgensen JH, Garcia M, Peters J, Drehner D. Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Mar 1;118(5):331-6. [PubMed]
13. Brenner DJ, O’Connor SP, Winkler HH, Steigerwalt AG. Proposals to unify the genera Bartonella and Rochalimaea, with descriptions of Bartonella quintana comb. nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and Bartonella elizabethae comb. nov., and to remove the family Bartonellaceae from the order Rickettsiales. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1993 Oct;43(4):777-86. [PubMed]
14. Mazur-Melewska K, Mania A, Kemnitz P, Figlerowicz M, Sluzewski W. Car-sratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2015 Jun;32(3):216-20. [PubMed]
15. Mandle T, Einsele H, Schaller M, Neumann D, Vogel W, Autenrieth IB, et al. Infection of human CD34+ progenitor cells with Bartonella henselae results in intraerythrocytic presence of B. henselae. Blood. 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1215-22. [PubMed]
16. Schweyer S, Fayyazi A. Activation and apoptosis of macrophages in cat scratch disease. J Pathol. 2002 Dec;198(4):534-40. [PubMed]
17. Resto-Ruiz S, Burgess A, Anderson BE. The role of the host immune response in pathogenesis of Bartonella henselae. DNA Cell Biol. 2003 Jun;22(6):431-40. [PubMed]
18. Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins K, Chi B, Yamamoto K, Roberts-Wilson J, et al. Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Aug;34(8):1952-6. [PubMed]
19. Brunt J, Guptill L, Kordick DL, Kudrak S, Lappin MR. American Association of Feline Practitioners 2006 Panel report on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bartonella spp. Infections. J Feline MedSurg. 2006 Aug;8(4):213-26. [PubMed]
20. Carithers HA. Cat-scratch disease: an overview based on a study of 1200 patients. Am J Dis Child.1985 Nov;139(11):1124-33. [PubMed]
21. Anderson BE, Neuman MA. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev.1997 Apr;10(2):203-19. [PubMed]
22. Dalton MJ, Robinson LE, Cooper JJ, Regnery RL, Olson JG, Childs JE. Use of Bartonella antigens for serologic diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at a national referral center. Arch InternMed.1995 Aug 7-21;155(15):1670-6. [PubMed]
23. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. Bartenolosis: suggestive case report in adult and pediatric patients and therapeutic issues. Braz J Inf Dis. 2006 Dec;10(6):411-5. [PubMed]
24. Ruess M, Sander A, Brandis M, Berner R. Portal Vein and Bone Involvement in Disseminated Cat-Scratch Disease: Report of 2 Cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Sep;31(3):818-21. [PubMed]
25. Chian CA, Arrese JE, Pierard GE. Skin manifestations of Bartonellainfections. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;41(8):461-6. [PubMed]
26. Garcia CJ, Varela C, Abarca K, Ferres M, Prado P, Vial PA. Regional lymphadenopathy in cat-scratch disease: ultrasonographic findings. Pediatr Radiol.2000 Sep;30(9):640-3. [PubMed]
27. Massei F, Gori L, Macchia P, Maggiore G. The expanded spectrum of bartonellosis in children. Infect Dis Clin North Am.2005 Sep;19(3):691-711. [PubMed]
28. Pocock DG, Katner HP. Cat-scratch disease associated with erythema nodosum. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1991 Sep-Oct;4(5):345-6. [PubMed]
29. Malatack JJ, Jaffe R. Granulomatous hepatitis in three children due to cat-scratch disease without peripheral adenopathy: an unrecognized cause of fever of unknown origin. Am J Dis Child. 1993 Sep;147(9):949-53. [PubMed]
30. Iannace C, Lo Conte D, Di Libero L, Varricchio A, Testa A, Vigorito R, et al. Cat scratch disease presenting as breast cancer: a report of an unusual case. Case Rep Oncol Med. 2013;2013:507504. [PubMed]
31. Barr YR, Qiu S. A 16-year-old adolescent boy with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy suspicious for malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Aug;129(8):1065-6. [PubMed]
32. Razaq M, Godkar D, Mankan N, Sridhar S, Hussain S, Ohri A. Cat scratch disease mimicking Richter's Syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005 Mar;46(3):443-5. [PubMed]
33. Berg LC, Norelle A, Morgan WA, Washa DM. Cat-scratch disease simulating histiocytosis X. Hum Pathol. 1998 Jun;29(6):649-51. [PubMed]
34. Ridder GJ, Richter B, Laszig R, Sander A. A farmer with a lump in his throat. Lancet. 1998 Mar 28;351(9107):954. [PubMed]
35. Koehler JE, Cederberg L. Intra-abdominal mass associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a new manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis. Gastroenterology. 1995 Dec;109(6):2011-4. [PubMed]
36. Hulzebos CV, Koetse HA, Kimpen JL, Wolfs TF. Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with cat-scratch disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;28(6):1310-2. [PubMed]
37. Hipp SJ, O'Shields A, Fordham LA, Blatt J, Hamrick HJ, Henderson FW. Multifocal bone marrow involvement in cat-scratch disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 May;24(5):472-4. [PubMed]
38. Maggiore G, Massei F, Bussani R, Ventura A. Bone pain after lymphadenitis. Eur J Pediatr. 1999 Feb;158(2):165-6. [PubMed]
39. Abdel-Haq N, Abuhammour W, Al-Tatari H, Asmar B. Disseminated cat scratch disease with vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. South Med J. 2005 Nov;98(11):1142-5. [PubMed]
40. Mazur-Melewska K, Macedulski T, Prusinowska J, Mania A, Kemnitz P, Figlerowicz M, et al. Diversity of the clinical course of cat scratch disease. Pediat Med Rodz. 2012; 8:176-9.
41. Warwick WJ. The cat-scratch syndrome: many diseases or one disease? Prog Med Virol. 1967; 9:256-301. [PubMed]
42. Chung J-Y, Koo JW, Kim SW, Yoo YS, Han TH, Lim SJ. A Case of Cat Scratch Disease Confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction for Bartonella henselae DNA. Korean J Pediatrics. 2005;48(7):789-92.
43. Hansmann Y, DeMartino S, Piemont Y, Meyer N, Mariet P, Heller R, et al. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease with detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a study of patients with lymph node enlargement. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):3800-6. [PubMed].

Received: 27 July 2020
Published online: 02 June 2021

back to Online Journal