head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2019, vol. 25, issue2
Subject Area: Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2019252.2486
Published online: 15 April 2019

Original article

J of IMAB. 2019 Apr-Jun;25(2):2486-2490
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti1ORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Thaisy Sarmento Batista de Oliveira1ORCID logo, Thaliny Batista Sarmento de Oliveira1ORCID logo, Christiane Leite Cavalcanti2ORCID logo, Alidianne Fabia Cabral Cavalcanti3ORCID logo,
1) Post-graduate Program in Public Health, State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.
2) Department of Nutrition, Integrated Faculty of Patos, Patos, PB, Brazil.
3) School of Dentistry, State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.

Purpose: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of homophobic crimes against Brazilian minorities.
Materials and Methods:A retrospective study was conducted at the Specialized Police for Homophobic Crimes. Information regarding year, age, schooling, sexual orientation LGBT identity, day of week, shift, place of occurrence, type of injury, number of wounds, weapon, numbers of perpetrators, sex, relationship, drug and alcohol use were collected. For bivariate analyses, the Chi-square and Fisher's exact, with significance level of 5% were used.
Results: The most affected age group was 19 to 28 years old (50.8%) and in relation to schooling, victims with high school education prevailed (62.3%). Regarding sexual orientation, 88.5% were identified as homosexual, 44.3% were gays and 22.9% were transvestite. Crimes occurred during weekdays (68.8%), at night (41%) and in public roads (63.9%). Of the 61 cases, 91.2% were characterized as homophobic crimes. Predominant lesions were lacerations (77%), and most victims presented multiple lesions (96.7%). Most homicides involve firearms (45.7%), followed by a white weapon (36.6%).Victims were assaulted by one perpetrator (59%). There was a statistically significant association for alcohol and drug use by perpetrators (p = 0.004).
Conclusion: Lethal violence against minorities showed a homophobic character, evidenced in the type of weapon used, number of lesions and the target regions. Given this scenario, there is an urgent need for the development of strategies linking security, health, education and legal sciences, enabling professionals in this area to deal with this problem.

Keywords: Sexual and Gender Minorities, Homosexuality, Violence, Homophobia, Aggression,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 500 KB/
Please cite this article as:Cavalcanti AL, Oliveira TSB, Oliveira TBS, Cavalcanti CL, Cavalcanti AFC. Homophobic Crimes: Epidemiological Characteristics of Homicides against Brazilian Minorities. J of IMAB. 2019 Apr-Jun;25(2):2486-2490. DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2019252.2486

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Pública, Rua das Baraúnas, S/N – Bodocongo; Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. 58429-500; E-mail: alessandrouepb@gmail.com

1.  World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.ICD-10 Version 2016. [Internet]
2. Mott LRB. Homoaffectivity and human rights. Rev Estudos Fem. 2009 May/Sep;14(2):509-521. [Crossref]
3. Duncan DT, Hatzenbuehler ML. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender hate crimes and suicidality among a population-based sample of sexual-minority adolescents in Boston. Am J Public Health.2014 Feb;104(2):272-8. [PubMed] [Crossref]
4. Prunas A, Bandini E, Fisher AD, Maggi M, Pace V, Quagliarella L, et al. Experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence in a sample of Italian transsexuals who have undergone sex-reassignment surgery. J Interpers Violence. 2018 Jul; 33(14):2225-2240. [PubMed] [Crossref]
5. Mott LRB. Homofobia: A violação dos direitos humanos de gays, lésbicas e travestis no Brasil. San Francisco: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, 1997.
6. Hate Crime Laws - A Practical Guide. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 9 March 2009. [Internet]
7.Blondeel K, de Vasconcelos S, García-Moreno C, Stephenson R, Temmerman M, Toskin I. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2018 Jan;96(1):29-41L. [PubMed] [Crossref]
8.Carrara S, Ramos S, Simões JA, Facchini R. [Politics, rights, violence and homosexuality: research 9th GLBT pride parade – São Paulo, 2005.] [in Portuguese] Rio de Janeiro: CEPESC, 2006. 79p.
9. Prunas A, Clerici CA, Gentile G, Muccino E, Veneroni L, Zoja R. Transphobic murders in Italy: An overview of homicides in Milan (Italy) in the past two decades (1993-2012). J Interpers Violence. 2015 Oct; 30(16):2872-85. [PubMed] [Crossref]
10. Abdala LB. Homofobia na publicidade: uma análise das características homofóbicas presentes em anúncios impressos: estudo de caso dos anúncios: “That Ain’t Right”, “Isn’t That Cute” e “Punks JumpUp” da campanha “In your face” - Nike 2008. 2009. 76p. Monografia. Curso de Publicidade e Propaganda, Universidade Salvador, Salvador. 2009 [in Portuguese].
11. Walters MA, Paterson J, Brown R, McDonnell L. Hate crimes against trans people: assessing emotions, behaviors, and attitudes toward criminal justice agencies. J Interpers Violence. 2017 Jun 1:886260517715026. [PubMed] [Crossref]
12. Stotzer RL. Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data. AggressViolent Behav. 2009 May-Jun;14(3):170-179. [Crossref]
13. Toro-Alfonso J, Rodríguez-Madera S. Domestic violence in Puerto Rican gay male couples: Perceived prevalence, intergenerational violence, addictive behaviors, and conflict resolution skills. J Interpers Violence. 2004 Jun;19(6):639-54. [PubMed] [Crossref]
14. Dibble SL, Sato N, Haller E. Asians and native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders midlife lesbians' health: A pilot study. Women & Therapy. 2007 Oct;30(3-4):129-143. [Crossref]
15. Wilsnack SC, Hughes TL, Johnson TP, Bostwick WB, Szalacha LA, Benson P, et al. Drinking and drinking-related problems among heterosexual and sexual minority women. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2008 Jan;69(1):129-39. [PubMed]
16. Sousa RIM, Bernardino ÍM, de Castro RD, Cavalcanti AL, Bento PM, d’Ávila S. Maxillofacial trauma resulting from physical violence against older adults: A 4-year study in a Brazilianforensic service. Braz Res Pediatr Dent Integr Clin. 2016 Jan;16(1):313-322. [Crossref]
17.Costa RC, Nóbrega JBM, Dantas ELA, Damascena LC, Protásio APL, Valença AMG. Profile of hospitalizations and deaths from craniofacial fractures in Brazilian children and adolescents: An ecological study. Braz Res Pediatr Dent Integr Clin. 2016 Jan;16(1):99-111. [Crossref]
18.Cavalcanti AFC, Lucena BM, Oliveira TBS, Cavalcanti CL, d’Avila S, Cavalcanti AL. Head and face injuries in automobile accidents and associated factors in a city in northeastern Brazil. Pesq Bras Odontoped Clin Integr. 2017 Jan;17(1):e3753. [Crossref]
19. Miguens-Jr SAQ, Borges TS, Dietrich LAB, Oliveira MC, Hernandez PAG, Kramer PF. A retrospective study of oral and maxillofacial injuries in an emergency hospital in southern Brazil.Braz Res Pediatr Dent Integr Clin. 2016 Jan;16(1):339-350. [Crossref].

Received: 29 September 2018
Published online: 15 April 2019

back to Online Journal