Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski, Gospodin Iliev
ISSN: 1312 773X (Online)
Issue: 2015, vol. 21, issue 4
Subject Area: Paediatric Dentistry
Pages: 941-944
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2015214.941
Published online: 22 November 2015

J of IMAB 2015 Oct-Dec;21(4):941-944
Mariela Georgieva1, Ani Belcheva2Corresponding Autor, Eli Hristozova3, Neli Genkova4, Tanya Nihtianova2, Mariana Murdjeva3
1) Student, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Plovdiv,
2) Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine,
3) Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,
4) Department of Paediatrics and Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine,
Medical University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Asthma is a chronic disease with increasing frequency that can affect medical and oral health. During the prolonged treatment mainly with corticosteroids and anticholinergic drugs, changes in the oral environment may occur.
The aim of this study is to investigate Candida presence in saliva collected from children with asthma and healthy coevals.
The study is comprised of 52 children with asthma and 37 controls. Saliva specimens from all the children were prepared and inoculated into selective chromogenic medium to establish colonies growth. Microbial counts determination-followed inoculation.  Medium-sized plates were cultured under aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and biochemical identification was performed.
Nearly one third of the examined children were colonized with yeasts on their oral mucosa without significant difference between the asthmatic and controls (26.9% of asthmatic patients and 29.7% of the controls).
Children with asthma had higher microbial counts of Candida (104-105), whereas healthy children demonstrated mono infestation and lower microbial counts – fewer than103. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal species from the oral cavity in children with asthma (in 69% of the samples) and in healthy children (in 46% of the samples). Some non-albicans species were also isolated in both groups.

Key words: children, asthma, candida, saliva,

- Download FULL TEXT /PDF 587 KB/
Please cite this article in PubMed Style or AMA (American Medical Association) Style:
Georgieva M, Belcheva A, Hristozova E, Genkova N, Nihtianova T, Murdjeva M. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON CANDIDA PRESENCE IN SALIVA OF CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA. J of IMAB. 2015 Oct-Dec;21(4):941-944. doi:

Correspondence to: Assoc. Prof. Ani Belcheva, DMD, MSc, PhD; Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Plovdiv; 3, Hristo Botev Bvd., Plovdiv, Bulgaria; E-mail:

1. Bateman ED, Hurd SS, Barnes PJ, Bousquet J, Drazen JM, FitzGerald M, et al.  Global strategy for asthma management and prevention.GINA executive summary. Eur Respir J. 2008 Jan;31(1):143-78. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Roland JN, Bhalla RK, Earis J. The local side effects of inhaled corticosteroids: current understanding and review of the literature. Chest. 2004 Jul;126(1):213–9. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Kurt E, Yildirim H, Kiraz N, Orman A, Metintas M, Akgun Y, Erginel S. Oropharyngeal candidiasis with dry-powdered fluticasone propionate: 500 microg/day versus 200 microg/day. Allergol Immunopathol 2008 Jan-Feb;36(1):17-20. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Stensson M, Wendt LK, Koch G, Oldaeus G, Ramberg P, Birkhed D. Oral health in young adults with long term, controlled asthma. Acta Odontol Scand. 2011 May;69(3) 158-64. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Samaranayake YU, Samaranayake LP. Experimental oral candidiasis in animal models. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Apr;14(2):398-429. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Dubus JC, Margurt C, Deschildre A, Mely L, Leroux P, Brouard J, et al. Local side-effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children: influence of drug, dose, age and device. Allergy 2001 Oct;56(10):944-8. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Toogood JH, Jennings B, Greenway RW, Chuang L. Candidiasis and dysphonia complicating beclomethasone treatment of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1980 Feb;65(2):146-53. [PubMed] [CrossRef
8. Williamson IJ, Matusiewicz SP, Brown PH, Greening AP, Crompton GK. Frequency of voice problems and cough in patients using pressurized aerosol steroid preparations. EurRespir J. 1995 Apr;8(4): 590-2. [PubMed]
9.  Komiyama EY, Ribeiro PR, Junqueira JC, Koga-Ito CY. Cardoso Jorge AO Prevalence of yeasts in the oral cavity of children treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Braz Oral Res. 2004 Jul-Sep;18(3):197-201. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Lenander-Lumikari M, Laurikainen K, Kuusisto P, Vilja P. Stimulated salivary flow rate and composition in asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults. Arch Oral Biol. 1998 Feb;43(2):151-6. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Rueda-Gordillo F, Hernández-Solís SE, Rodriguez-Fernandez M, Lama-Gonzalez EM. Oral Cavity Candida spp. Prevalence in Asthmatic Children. ICAAC. 2014; on-line POM-029.
12. Walsh TJ, Groll A, Hiemenz J, Fleming R, Roilides E, Anaissie E. Infections due to emerging and uncommon medically important fungal pathogens. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Mar;10 Suppl 1:44–66. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Colombo AL, Padovan AC, Chaves GM. Current Knowledge of Trichosporon spp. and Trichosporonosis.  Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011 Oct;24(4): 682–700. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Williams DW, Lewis MA, Isolation and identification of Candida from the oral cavity. Oral Dis.2000 Jan;6(1):3-11. [PubMed].

Received: 30 September 2015
Published online: 22 November 2015

back to Online Journal